Why broadened marketing has enriched marketing

Philip Kotler*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debatepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


The marketing discipline, which emerged in the early 1900s, spent its first 70 years focused on describing and evaluating how for-profit organizations conduct their commercial operations with products and services. Starting in the 1970s, marketing scholars – Philip Kotler, Sidney Levy, Gerald Zaltman, and Richard Bagozzi – wrote a series of articles showing that marketing activities go on in the non-profit sector as well. They proposed that the marketing discipline would be enriched by working with the “marketing” problems of non-profit and public organizations--not just the marketing problems of commercial organizations. This subsequently came to be known as the “broadening of marketing.” A few years later, some marketers challenged the broadening idea as not belonging in the discipline of marketing. The broadening scholars suggested carrying out a referendum with marketing professors. The subsequent vote proved to be overwhelmingly in favor of the broadening movement. More recently, Adel El-Ansary and co-authors (El-Ansary et al. AMS Review,2018) raised the question of whether the broadening work is part of a larger paradigm that might lead to a general theory of marketing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)20-22
Number of pages3
JournalAMS Review
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Jun 2018


  • A general theory of marketing
  • Broadening of marketing
  • Demarketing
  • Gerald Zaltman
  • Museum marketing
  • Philip Kotler
  • Richard Bagozzi
  • Sidney Levy
  • Social marketing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Marketing


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