X-ray Microscopy with the NSLS Soft X-ray Undulator

Janos Kirz*, Harald Ade, Chris Buckley, Sid Hellman, Chris Jacobsen, Steve Lindaas, Ian McNulty, Menno Oversluizen, Erik Anderson, David Attwood, Malcolm Howells, Stephen Rothman, Erik Anderson, Dieter Kern, David Sayre, Harvey Rarback, Mark Rivers, Deming Shu, Stephen Rothman, Chris BuckleyDeming Shu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Soft x-rays are attractive for microscopy because they tend to be less damaging to specimens than charged probes. In addition their interactions with specimens can result in element-specific information and the penetration depth is adjustable by choice of the beam energy. Resolution on the order of 50 nm has been demonstrated, and further improvements are anticipated. The experimental program at the NSLS X1A beamline is dedicated to soft x-ray microscopy. We are developing two types of instruments, both dependent on the remarkable brightness of the undulator source. One of these uses a Fresnel zone plate to focus the beam to a small size. This microprobe is used either to study biological specimens, or, in a different apparatus, to study surfaces by photoelectron microscopy. The other type of instrument makes use of x-rays diffracted by the specimen. In this category we are involved in the development of Gabor holography, Fourier transform holography, and in imaging by soft x-ray diffraction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12-17
Number of pages6
JournalPhysica Scripta
Issue numberT31
StatePublished - Jan 1 1990

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Mathematical Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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