X-ray microscopy can be used to image whole, unsectioned cells in their native hydrated state. It complements the higher resolution of electron microscopy for submicrometer thick specimens, and the molecule-specific imaging capabilites of fluorescence light microscopy. We describe here the first use of fast, continuous X-ray scanning of frozen hydrated cells for simultaneous sub-20 nm resolution ptychographic transmission imaging with high contrast, and sub-100 nm resolution deconvolved X-ray fluorescence imaging of diffusible and bound ions at native concentrations, without the need to add specific labels. By working with cells that have been rapidly frozen without the use of chemical fixatives, and imaging them under cryogenic conditions, we are able to obtain images with well preserved structural and chemical composition, and sufficient stability against radiation damage to allow for multiple images to be obtained with no observable change.
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