Rationale and Objectives: To use a rapid gas-challenge blood oxygen-level dependent magnetic resonance imaging exam to evaluate changes in tumor hypoxia after 90Y radioembolization (Y90) in the VX2 rabbit model. Materials and Methods: White New Zealand rabbits (n = 11) provided a Y90 group (n = 6 rabbits) and untreated control group (n = 5 rabbits). R2* maps were generated with gas-challenges (O2/room air) at baseline, 1 week, and 2 weeks post-Y90. Laboratory toxicity was evaluated at baseline, 24 hours, 72 hours, 1 hours, and 2 weeks. Histology was used to evaluate tumor necrosis on hematoxylin and eosin and immunofluorescence imaging was used to assess microvessel density (CD31) and proliferative index (Ki67). Results: At baseline, median tumor volumes and time to imaging were similar between groups (p = 1.000 and p = 0.4512, respectively). The median administered dose was 50.4 Gy (95% confidence interval:44.8–55.9). At week 2, mean tumor volumes were 5769.8 versus 643.7 mm3 for control versus Y90 rabbits, respectively (p = 0.0246). At two weeks, ΔR2* increased for control tumors to 12.37 ± 12.36sec−1 and decreased to 4.48 ± 9.00sec−1 after Y90. The Pearson correlation coefficient for ΔR2* at baseline and percent increase in tumor size by two weeks was 0.798 for the Y90 group (p = 0.002). There was no difference in mean microvessel density for control versus Y90 treated tumors (p = 0.6682). The mean proliferative index was reduced in Y90 treated tumors at 30.5% versus 47.5% for controls (p = 0.0071). Conclusion: The baseline ΔR2* of tumors prior to Y90 may be a predictive imaging biomarker of tumor response and treatment of these tumors with Y90 may influence tumor oxygenation over time.
- Hepatic radioembolization
- Magnetic resonance imaging
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging