Purpose: To investigate the feasibility, safety, and absorbed-dose distribution of prostatic artery radioembolization (RE) in a canine model. Materials and Methods: Fourteen male castrated beagles received dihydroandrosterone/estradiol to induce prostatic hyperplasia for the duration of the study. Each dog underwent fluoroscopic prostatic artery catheterization. Yttrium-90 (90Y) microspheres (TheraSphere; Boston Scientific, Marlborough, Massachusetts) were delivered to 1 prostatic hemigland (dose escalation from 60 to 200 Gy), with the contralateral side serving as a control. Assessments for adverse events were performed throughout the follow-up (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v5.0). Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provided a confirmation after the delivery of absorbed-dose distribution. MR imaging was performed before and 3, 20, and 40 days after RE. Tissue harvest of the prostate, rectum, bladder, urethra, penis, and neurovascular bundles was performed 60 days after RE. Results: All the animals successfully underwent RE. Positron emission tomography/MR imaging demonstrated localization to and good coverage of only the treated hemigland. No adverse events occurred. The MR imaging showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the treated hemigland size at 40 days (25%–60%, P < .001). No extraprostatic radiographic changes were observed. Necropsy demonstrated no gross rectal, urethral, penile, or bladder changes. Histology revealed RE-induced changes in the treated prostatic tissues of the highest dose group, with gland atrophy and focal necrosis. No extraprostatic RE-related histologic findings were observed. Conclusions: Prostate 90Y RE is safe and feasible in a canine model and leads to focal dose-dependent changes in the gland without inducing unwanted extraprostatic effects. These results suggest that an investigation of nonoperative prostate cancer is warranted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine