We consider the gapless modes along the vortex line of the fully gapped, momentum independent paired states of three-dimensional Dirac fermions. For this, we require the solution of fermion zero modes of the corresponding two-dimensional problem in the presence of a point vortex, in the plane perpendicular to the vortex line. Based on the spectral symmetry requirement for the existence of the zero mode, we identify the appropriate generalized Jackiw-Rossi Hamiltonians for different paired states. A four-dimensional generalized Jackiw-Rossi Hamiltonian possesses spectral symmetry with respect to an antiunitary operator, and gives rise to a single zero mode only for the odd vorticity, which is formally described by a Z2 index. In the presence of generic perturbations such as chemical potential, Dirac mass, and Zeeman couplings, the associated two-dimensional problem for the odd parity topological superconducting state maps onto two copies of generalized Jackiw-Rossi Hamiltonian, and consequently an odd vortex binds two Majorana fermions. In contrast, there are no zero-energy states for the topologically trivial s-wave superconductor in the presence of any chiral symmetry breaking perturbation in the particle-hole channel, such as regular Dirac mass. We show that the number of one-dimensional dispersive modes along the vortex line is also determined by the index of the associated two-dimensional problem. For an axial superfluid state in the presence of various perturbations, we discuss the consequences of the Z2 index on the anomaly equations.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics|
|State||Published - Apr 14 2014|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics